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Fisang C et al, 2015: Urolithiasis-an Interdisciplinary Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Secondary Preventive Challenge.

Fisang C, Anding R, Müller SC, Latz S, Laube N.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of urolithiasis in Germany is 4.7%; its incidence has trebled in the last three decades. The risk of recurrence is 50-80%, depending on the type of stone, unless secondary prevention is instituted. Risk-adapted secondary prevention lowers this risk to 10-15%.METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed using the key words "urolithiasis," "urinary stones," "epidemiology," "lithogenesis," "biominerals," "risk factors," and "diagnosis, therapy, metaphylaxis." These publications were evaluated with the aid of the urolithiasis guideline of the European Association of Urology.
RESULTS: Acute renal colic can usually be diagnosed without sophisticated equipment. Stones can be dealt with by a variety of techniques depending on their size and location, including extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy, and open surgery. Most ureteric stones of diameter up to 5 mm pass spontaneously. 75% of patients have no complications. The basic evaluation needed for secondary prevention can be carried out by any physician on an ambulatory basis. In the 25% of patients who have complications, a more extensive interdisciplinary evaluation of metabolic parameters should be performed in a clinical center for urinary stones.
CONCLUSION: Urolithiasis has many causes and can be treated in many different ways. An extensive metabolic work-up is often necessary for secondary prevention. The various treatment options must be considered for their suitability in each individual patient. Robust data are now available on surgical and interventional methods, but there are as yet no high-quality trials of secondary prevention. Further research should concentrate on the etiology and pathogenesis of urolithiasis.  

Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2015 Feb 6;112(6):83-91. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2015.0083.

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Comments 1

Peter Alken on Friday, 12 June 2015 07:43

This is a general review on all aspects of urolithiasis without special emphasis on SWL.

This is a general review on all aspects of urolithiasis without special emphasis on SWL.
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