Canseco G et al, 2011: Modified shock waves for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: A simulation based on the Gilmore formulation
Canseco G, de Icaza-Herrera M, Fernández F, Loske AM
Posgrado en Ingeniería, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510, Mexico
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a reliable therapy for the treatment of urolithiasis. Nevertheless, improvements to enhance stone fragmentation and reduce tissue damage are still needed. During SWL, cavitation is one of the most important stone fragmentation mechanisms. Bubbles with a diameter between about 7 and 55μm have been reported to expand and collapse after shock wave passage, forming liquid microjets at velocities of up to 400m/s that contribute to the pulverization of renal calculi. Several authors have reported that the fragmentation efficiency may be improved by using tandem shock waves. Tandem SWL is based on the fact that the collapse of a bubble can be intensified if a second shock wave arrives tenths or even a few hundredths of microseconds before its collapse. The object of this study is to determine if tandem pulses consisting of a conventional shock wave (estimated rise time between 1 and 20ns), followed by a slower second pressure profile (0.8μs rise time), have advantages over conventional tandem SWL. The Gilmore equation was used to simulate the influence of the modified pressure field on the dynamics of a single bubble immersed in water and compare the results with the behavior of the same bubble subjected to tandem shock waves. The influence of the delay between pulses on the dynamics of the collapsing bubble was also studied for both conventional and modified tandem waves. For a bubble of 0.07mm, our results indicate that the modified pressure profile enhances cavitation compared to conventional tandem waves at a wide range of delays (10-280μs). According to this, the proposed pressure profile could be more efficient for SWL than conventional tandem shock waves. Similar results were obtained for a ten times smaller bubble.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ultrasonics. 2011 Oct;51(7):803-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ultras.2011.03.008. Epub 2011 Mar 23
PMID: 21459398 [PubMed - in process]
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