Ferreira Cassini M et al, 2012: Lithiasis in 1,313 kidney transplants: incidence, diagnosis, and management
Ferreira Cassini M, Cologna AJ, Ferreira Andrade M, Lima GJ, Medeiros Albuquerque U, Pereira Martins AC, Tucci Junior S.
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery and Anatomy, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
BACKGROUND: Renal transplantation remains the optimal treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease. Urinary lithiasis represents an unusual urologic complication in renal transplantation, with an incidence of 1%. Today, recipients of kidneys from deceased donors are more likely to receive grafts with undiagnosed lithiasis, which does not occur in patients from living donors, owing to screening with computerized tomography.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of renal lithiasis in transplanted kidneys at a single institution.
METHODS: We reviewed the medical records for 1,313 patients who underwent kidney transplantation from February 1968 to February 2011.
RESULTS: Among the grafts, 17 patients (1.29%) had nephrolithiasis: 9 women and 8 men. Ages ranged from 32 to 63 years (mean  45.6 years). Fifteen patients received kidneys from cadaveric and only 2 from living related donors. Two stones, both located inside the ureter, were identified during transplant surgery (11.7%). Three instances of lithiasis were incidentally diagnosed by ultrasound during graft evaluation, within 7 days after surgery (17.6%); all 3 were in the calyces. The 12 remaining patients had the stones diagnosed later (70.58%): 6 in the calyces, 3 in the renal pelvis, and 3 inside the ureter.
CONCLUSIONS: Urinary lithiasis is a rare complication in renal transplantation. In most patients the condition occurs without pain. The diagnosis and treatment options for graft urolithiasis are similar to those patients with nephrolithiasis in the general population. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was the most common treatment method.
Transplant Proc. 2012 Oct;44(8):2373-5. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.07.052.
PMID: 23026596 [PubMed - in process]