Gross AJ et al, 2014: Managing caliceal stones
Gross AJ, Knipper S, Netsch C
Department of Urology, Asklepios Hospital Barmbek, 22291 Hamburg, Germany
The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones
Indian J Urol. 2014 Jan;30(1):92-8. doi: 10.4103/0970-1591.124214.