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Kachkoul R. et al., 2023: Urolithiasis: History, epidemiology, aetiologic factors and management.

Kachkoul R, Touimi GB, El Mouhri G, El Habbani R, Mohim M, Lahrichi A.Malays J
Higher Institute of Nursing Professions and Health Techniques, Fez 30000, Morocco.
Euromed research center, Euromed faculty of medicine, Euromed University of Fes (UEMF), 30 030, Meknes Road, Campus UEMF, BP51, Fez, Morocco.
University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Road of Sidi Harazem, Fez, Morocco.
University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Laboratory of Molecular Bases in Human Pathology and Therapeutic Tools, Road of Sidi Harazem, Fez, Morocco.

Abstract

Urolithiasis is defined as a disease diagnosed by the presence of one or more stones in the urinary tract. It is one of the oldest and most widespread diseases known to man, their discovery and characterisation chronology began with the civilisation's history. This pathology has a multifactorial aetiology, very frequent worldwide with geographic and racial variation, their prevalence is increasing in lockstep with socioeconomic development. In fact, this disorder affects between 2 and 20% of the population, with an approximate recurrence rate of 30% to 50% in 5 years. Furthermore, calciumtype stones, which are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) alone or a mixture of CaOx and calcium phosphate are the most common, accounting for more than 80% of cases. The medical management of urolithiasis is done by medical treatments and/or by surgical intervention for the stones extraction by the techniques such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopy (URS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgery. However, various therapies, including thiazide diuretics and alkaline citrate, are used in an attempt to prevent stones recurrence induced by hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria, but the scientific evidence for their effectiveness is less convincing. On the other hand, endoscopic and ESWL methods have revolutionised the treatment of urinary lithiasis, but these costly methods, can cause acute kidney injury and decreased renal function, in addition, do not prevent the probability of new stone formation. The deepening of our knowledge on all points relating to this disease is a priority for specialists in order to find adequate solutions for this disease. This review provides an overview of urolithiasis, its history, epidemiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment methods.

Pathol. 2023 Dec;45(3):333-352. PMID: 38155376 FREE ARTICLE

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Comments 1

Peter Alken on Tuesday, 26 March 2024 10:00

6 Non-Urologists from Morocco publish a general review on urolithiasis containing 3 sentences on ESWL in the Malaysian Journal of Pathology. 173 References!

Peter Alken

6 Non-Urologists from Morocco publish a general review on urolithiasis containing 3 sentences on ESWL in the Malaysian Journal of Pathology. 173 References! Peter Alken
Monday, 20 May 2024