Smeulders N. et al., 2023: Shockwaves and the Rolling Stones: An Overview of Pediatric Stone Disease
Smeulders N, Cho A, Alshaiban A, Read K, Fagan A, Easty M, Minhas K, Barnacle A, Hayes W, Bockenhauer D.
Great Ormond Street Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, UK.
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud University, King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Renal Medicine, University College London, London, UK.
Urinary stone disease is a common problem in adults, with an estimated 10% to 20% lifetime risk of developing a stone and an annual incidence of almost 1%. In contrast, in children, even though the incidence appears to be increasing, urinary tract stones are a rare problem, with an estimated incidence of approximately 5 to 36 per 100,000 children. Consequently, typical complications of rare diseases, such as delayed diagnosis, lack of awareness, and specialist knowledge, as well as difficulties accessing specific treatments also affect children with stone disease. Indeed, because stone disease is such a common problem in adults, frequently, it is adult practitioners who will first be asked to manage affected children. Yet, there are unique aspects to pediatric urolithiasis such that treatment practices common in adults cannot necessarily be transferred to children. Here, we review the epidemiology, etiology, presentation, investigation, and management of pediatric stone disease; we highlight those aspects that separate its management from that in adults and make a case for a specialized, multidisciplinary approach to pediatric stone disease.
Kidney Int Rep. 2022 Dec 2;8(2):215-228. doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2022.11.017. eCollection 2023 Feb. PMID: 36815103. Review. FREE ARTICLE
This paper with 122 references offers an extensive review of all aspects of urolithiasis in the young age groups.
Cao B, et al. Pediatric Nephrolithiasis.
.Healthcare (Basel). 2023 Feb 13;11(4):552. doi: 10.3390/healthcare11040552.PMID: 36833086 . Review.
Free PMC article