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Maxwell AD. et al., 2019: Evaluation of Renal Stone Comminution and Injury by Burst Wave Lithotripsy in a Pig Model

Maxwell AD, Wang YN, Kreider W, Cunitz BW, Starr F, Lee D, Nazari Y, Williams JC Jr, Bailey MR, Sorensen MD. Department of Urology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Department of Radiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana.
Division of Urology, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Seattle, Washington.

Abstract

Introduction: Burst wave lithotripsy is an experimental technology to noninvasively fragment kidney stones with focused bursts of ultrasound (US). This study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of specific lithotripsy parameters in a porcine model of nephrolithiasis. Methods: A 6- to 7-mm human kidney stone was surgically implanted in each kidney of three pigs. A burst wave lithotripsy US transducer with an inline US imager was coupled to the flank and the lithotripter focus was aligned with the stone. Each stone was exposed to burst wave lithotripsy at 6.5 to 7 MPa focal pressure for 30 minutes under real-time image guidance. After treatment, the kidneys were removed for gross, histologic, and MRI assessment. Stone fragments were retrieved from the kidney to determine the mass comminuted to pieces <2 mm. Results: On average, 87% of the stone mass was reduced to fragments <2 mm. In three of five treatments, stones were completely comminuted to <2-mm fragments. In two of five treatments, stones were partially disintegrated, but larger fragments remained. One stone was not treated because no suitable acoustic window was identified. No injury was detected through gross, histologic, or MRI examination in the parenchymal tissue, although petechial damage and surface erosion were identified on the urothelium of the collecting system limited to the area around the stone. Conclusion: Burst wave lithotripsy can consistently produce stone fragments small enough to spontaneously pass by transcutaneous administration of US pulses. The data suggest that such exposures produce minimal injury to the kidney and urinary tract.

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