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Maxwell AD. et al., 2020: An investigation of elastic waves producing stone fracture in burst wave lithotripsy

Maxwell AD, MacConaghy B, Bailey MR, Sapozhnikov OA.
Department of Urology, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 Northeast Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA.
Department of Acoustics, Physics Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992, Russia.

Abstract

Burst wave lithotripsy is a method to noninvasively fragment urinary stones by short pulses of focused ultrasound. In this study, physical mechanisms of stone fracture during burst wave lithotripsy were investigated. Photoelasticity imaging was used to visualize elastic wave propagation in model stones and compare results to numerical calculations. Epoxy and glass stone models were made into rectangular, cylindrical, or irregular geometries and exposed in a degassed water bath to focused ultrasound bursts at different frequencies. A high-speed camera was used to record images of the stone during exposure through a circular polariscope backlit by a monochromatic flash source. Imaging showed the development of periodic stresses in the stone body with a pattern dependent on frequency. These patterns were identified as guided wave modes in cylinders and plates, which formed standing waves upon reflection from the distal surfaces of the stone model, producing specific locations of stress concentration in the models. Measured phase velocities compared favorably to numerically calculated modes dependent on frequency and material. Artificial stones exposed to bursts produced cracks at positions anticipated by this mechanism. These results support guided wave generation and reflection as a mechanism of stone fracture in burst wave lithotripsy.
J Acoust Soc Am. 2020 Mar;147(3):1607. doi: 10.1121/10.0000847. PMID: 32237849.

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Comments 1

Hans-Göran Tiselius on Wednesday, October 14 2020 08:30

The article is a summary of experimental studies of BWL (burst wave lithotripsy). The propagation of burst waves with frequencies of 170 kHz, 340 kHz and 800 kHz was observed and measured in models of epoxy, glass, and artificial stones. Interference obviously caused cracks in stones by reflection of the burst wave on the surfaces of the models and internally within the stone. The effect was interpreted as “guided wave generation and reflection”.

It will indeed be interesting to see what can be accomplished by the BWL technology clinically. Is this a future non-invasive technique for stone removal??

Hans-Göran Tiselius

The article is a summary of experimental studies of BWL (burst wave lithotripsy). The propagation of burst waves with frequencies of 170 kHz, 340 kHz and 800 kHz was observed and measured in models of epoxy, glass, and artificial stones. Interference obviously caused cracks in stones by reflection of the burst wave on the surfaces of the models and internally within the stone. The effect was interpreted as “guided wave generation and reflection”. It will indeed be interesting to see what can be accomplished by the BWL technology clinically. Is this a future non-invasive technique for stone removal?? Hans-Göran Tiselius
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Friday, October 30 2020

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